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Youping Gao, PhD
Project Manager, Engineering
Refractory metal’s exceptional high temperature handling capability and high damage tolerance have made it one of the essential materials for extreme environment applications, such as rocket engines combustion devices, hypersonic vehicles and engines, spacecraft reaction control system. Currently, there is a demand surge for refractory materials for defense and commercial space applications. However, the traditional refractory manufacturing’s high cost, limited availability, long delivery cycle have hampered applications for this material. Additive manufacturing on the other hand has demonstrated rapid net shape printing capability along with significant cost reduction in structural refractory fabrication and increased design space capabilities. The promise of superior materials performance, cost reduction, and significant schedule improvement led to multiple government agencies funding for technology maturation. In this work, comprehensive metallurgical process evaluation, materials characterization, and broad properties testing are conducted, examined compared to its wrought equivalent. Significant materials properties improvement through additive manufacturing is achieved and newly developed Nb C103 derivative, the Super C103 is presented. Effective and efficient Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) technology was also developed for ensuring the AM refractory metal’s quality. Case studies of AM refractory hardware in extreme environment application will also be presented.
Mueller Additive Manufacturing Solutions
Topology Optimization and Generative Design have received a great deal of press about their ability to greatly reduce the weight of components without sacrificing performance. To date, however, there are few examples where such designs have been implemented, primarily because of the difficulty and cost of manufacturing optimized components in production.
This case study covers a foundry owner’s effort to use topology optimization to redesign an investment cast instrument housing. His customer informed him that the aircraft component that he had been casting for several years was a candidate for light-weighting and that he would likely lose the order. He decided to be proactive and look for an alternative casting design that would not only meet the weight reduction goals of the manufacturer but would result in fuel savings greater than the increased cost of manufacture. Although it presented significant manufacturing challenges, the resulting design not only exceeded the weight reduction objectives of the customer, but the expected fuel savings far exceeded the increased cost of manufacture.
Eliana Fu, PhD
Industry Manager: Aerospace & Medical
Additive Manufacturing, known colloquially as 3D Printing, is now an established method of manufacturing, is real and not a gimmick. We are currently in a new space race, which is being led by commercial tech start-ups. These companies are small, nimble-acting and forward-thinking, refuse to do things the old way and embrace the new. For these companies and more, Additive Manufacturing is the key to unlocking access to space. As we seek to push the boundaries of human space flight, the challenge for space launch providers and the associated supply chain, is to provide greater access to space by improving products, deploying new materials, simplifying designs, decreasing part count, reducing errors and driving smarter and leaner operations. Additive Manufacturing is also an enabling technology for automation, machine learning and AI. From combustion devices for rocket engine propulsion to wire arc additive manufacturing of domes, barrels and fuel tanks, the technology is providing real solutions to space exploration problems. 3D Printing in microgravity and off-planet is another aspect of Additive Manufacturing which is making science fiction become science fact. As we recommence exploring our solar system, Additive Manufacturing is the key to unlocking access to space.
Dan Braley, CAM-T
Associate Technical Fellow – Additive Manufacturing Technical Focal & Initiatives Lead
Boeing Global Services
As aerospace and defense assets continue to age and exceed the lives they were expected to be in service, the need for spares and repairs continues to increase. Advanced manufacturing concepts such as Additive Manufacturing (AM) are required in order to reduce spare part lead times and the need for costly, long lead tooling. This presentation will walk through the AM technologies that are prevalent within the aerospace and defense industry for spares and repairs applications. Two technologies that will be discussed include hybrid AM and cold spray. A discussion around the advancements seen to date in AM for sustainment as well as what hurdles are still yet to be overcome will ensue.
Co-Founder and CEO
FormAlloy Technologies, Inc
Jeffrey Riemann, MS
FormAlloy Technologies, Inc.
Metal Additive Manufacturing processes such as Directed Energy Deposition (DED) can produce complex geometries with incredible benefits for applications, but there are challenges between concept design and producing a part. To create quality, repeatable parts, in-process monitoring can be utilized to both collect data and control the build process. The data collected can help determine the point of failure initiation, and with implemented control in place, self-correction is possible during the build process. With Directed Energy Deposition, various monitoring and control modes are available to reduce parameter development times, improve build quality, and limit operator input during a build. Among these control modes are melt pool size and temperature, powder flow, laser power, and geometric monitoring and control. These control modes not only significantly reduce the process parameter development cycle, but also result in a higher quality build to include density and material properties.
Chemical Post-Processing Advantages for High Temperature Metal Alloys on Additive Manufactured Parts
Director Business Development
Tech Met, Inc.
The use of additively manufactured high temperature components offer many benefits including cost reduction, better performance and lower risk, however, the parts created using these processes are often left with trapped or partially processed powder and, rough surfaces, heat scale and other imperfections which cause difficulty in FPI and Blue light inspection.
Chemical milling and surface post-processing for high temperature additively manufactured, 3D printed metal parts is available today on a wide variety of alloys including all printed titanium alloys, aluminum alloys (including A205) and high temperature corrosion resistant alloys (Inconel 625, Inconel 718, Haynes 188, and cobalt chrome).
Chemical post-processing improves the surface finish of parts and provides a methodology to enable product realization and meet design specifications. The finishing process can enhance a part’s surface characteristics, geometric accuracy, aesthetics, mechanical properties, and facilitate FPI and blue light inspection. Some typical applications for chemical surface treatment operations are:
- Significant improvement of fatigue performance
- Removal of unwanted surface crystalline morphologies
- Surface preparation for dye penetrants or other inspection processes
- External and Internal support structure removal
This process has been successfully used to provide a method to remove partially sintered or loose powder particles on internal and external surfaces, decrease overall surface roughness of the printed component with an average of 60-70% reduction between incoming and post processed parts, and reduces scale or oxidation layers to promote FPI interpretability.
Validation of Flight Worthy Additive Manufactured Components via Process / Material Property Data Generation
Sr. Fellow, Aerospace and Department of Defense Additive Strategy
The aviation market (defense and commercial) is a risk mitigation industry and designers must have material property data (material strength data) so components can be designed without the fear of failure. Customers / insurance organizations require accurate engineering and science be applied to components designed using manufacturing methods that involve additive manufacturing.
New and novel technologies like additive manufacturing will face cultural resistance because any change from the established norm is viewed as an introduction of risk. Organizations not familiar with additive technologies will avoid using it due to risk mitigation. The science of additive must prove mechanical properties are as good as or better than conventional manufacturing technologies
This 30-minute presentation will provide a high-level review of why process / material characterization for 3D printing needs to be performed at all elements of the supply chain. Discussion points will focus on powder and shielding gas as well as material test methods. In addition, discussions will be had on the alloys currently in production and what alloys are being considering for production and what actions are being taken by SLM Solutions in conjunction with North American universities and government agencies to help expedite material characterization for American industry.
Bhaskar Dutta, PhD
Farhad Ghadamli, CAM-F
Lead Additive Manufacturing Engineer
Additive Manufacturing (AM) is emerging as a mainstream manufacturing technology, and demand for large part manufacturing is getting stronger. Direct Metal Deposition (DMD) is a DED technology based on laser and powder metal application using a closed-loop-feedback control system. This presentation will give an overview of the DMD technology highlighting its capability to scale up to large size parts. The focus will be DM3D’s new multi-nozzle DMD technology capable of printing parts up to 10ft in diameter, 10ft in height and 5000 lbs. in weight. The multi-nozzle DMD technology doubles the part throughput with a further possibility of quadrupling it. Other challenges such as residual stress and distortion related to large scale AM will be discussed in detail. Simulation approaches to mitigate such challenges will be demonstrated through example parts. Finally, a case study involving 3D printing of a very large size real-world part, namely NASA’s RS 25 engine nozzle will be discussed. Benefits and risks of 3D printing such parts that are more than 9ft in height and weighs more than 3500Lbs will be highlighted.